Nose, Sinus and Allergy
Nose, Sinus and Allergy
Nose, Sinus And Allergy Treatment
Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane is called rhinitis. The symptoms include sneezing and runny and/or itchy nose, caused by irritation and congestion in the nose. There are two types: allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis
Allergic Rhinitis occurs when the body’s immune system over-responds to specific, non-infectious particles such as plant pollens, molds, dust mites, animal hair, industrial chemicals (including tobacco smoke), foods, medicines, and insect venom. During an allergic attack, antibodies, primarily immunoglobin E (IgE), attach to mast cells (cells that release histamine) in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes. Once IgE connects with the mast cells, a number of chemicals are released. One of the chemicals, histamine, opens the blood vessels and causes skin redness and swollen membranes. When this occurs in the nose, sneezing and congestion are the result.
Millions of Americans suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. Often fragrant flowers are blamed for the uncomfortable symptoms, yet they are rarely the cause; their pollens are too heavy to be airborne. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help determine the substances causing your discomfort and develop a management plan that will help make life more enjoyable.
The shape of your nasal cavity could be the cause of chronic sinusitis. The nasal septum is the wall dividing the nasal cavity into halves; it is composed of a central supporting skeleton covered on each side by mucous membrane. The front portion of this natural partition is a firm but bendable structure made mostly of cartilage and is covered by skin that has a substantial supply of blood vessels. The ideal nasal septum is exactly midline, separating the left and right sides of the nose into passageways of equal size.
Fungi are plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll. Since they do not have chlorophyll, fungi must absorb food from dead organic matter. Fungi share with bacteria the important ability to break down complex organic substances of almost every type (cellulose) and are essential to the recycling of carbon and other elements in the cycle of life. Fungi are supposed to “eat” only dead things, but sometimes they start eating when the organism is still alive. This is the cause of fungal infections; the treatment selected has to eradicate the fungus to be effective.
Projecting prominently from the central part of the face, it is no surprise that the nose is the most commonly broken bone on the head. A broken nose (nasal fracture) can significantly alter your appearance. It can also make it much harder to breathe through the nose.
What is a nasal fracture?
Getting struck on the nose, whether by another person, a door, or the floor is not pleasant. Your nose will hurt—usually a lot. You’ll likely have a nose bleed and soon find it difficult to breathe through your nose. Swelling develops both inside and outside the nose, and you may get dark bruises around your eyes (“black eyes”).
The nose is an area of the body that contains many tiny blood vessels (or arterioles) that can break easily. In the United States, one of every seven people will develop a nosebleed some time in their lifetime. Nosebleeds can occur at any age but are most common in children aged 2-10 years and adults aged 50-80 years. Nosebleeds are divided into two types, depending on whether the bleeding is coming from the front or back of the nose.
Glands in your nose and throat continually produce mucus (one to two quarts a day). Mucus moistens and cleans the nasal membranes, humidifies air, traps and clears inhaled foreign matter, and fights infection. Although it is normally swallowed unconsciously, the feeling of it accumulating in the throat or dripping from the back of your nose is called post-nasal drip. This sensation can be caused by excessively thick secretions or by throat muscle and swallowing disorders.
Not every headache is the consequence of sinus and nasal passage problems. For example, many patients visit an ear, nose, and throat specialist to seek treatment for a sinus headache and learn they actually have a migraine or tension headache. The confusion is common, a migraine can cause irritation of the trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve (with branches in the forehead, cheeks and jaw). This may produce pain at the lower-end branches of the nerve, in or near the sinus cavity.
Why Do We Suffer From Nasal And Sinus Discomfort?
The body’s nasal and sinus membranes have similar responses to viruses, allergic insults, and common bacterial infections. Membranes become swollen and congested. This congestion causes pain and pressure; mucus production increases during inflammation, resulting in a drippy, runny nose. These secretions may thicken over time, may slow in their drainage, and may predispose to future bacterial infection of the sinuses.
Problems with these senses have a big impact on our lives. Smell and taste contribute to our enjoyment of life by stimulating a desire to eat – which not only nourishes our bodies, but also enhances our social activities. When smell and taste become impaired, we eat poorly, socialize less, and feel worse. Smell and taste warn us of dangers, such as fire, poisonous fumes, and spoiled food. Loss of the sense of smell may indicate sinus disease, growths in the nasal passages, or, at times, brain tumors.
Nasal congestion, stuffiness, or obstruction to nasal breathing is one of the oldest and most common human complaints. For some, it may only be a nuisance; for others, nasal congestion can be a source of considerable discomfort.
Medical writers have established four main causes of nasal obstruction: infection, structural abnormalities, allergic, and nonallergic (vasomotor) rhinitis. Patients often have a combination of these factors which vary from person to person.
Drugs for stuffy nose, sinus trouble, congestion and drainage, and the common cold constitute a large segment of the over-the-counter market for America’s medication industry. Even though they do not cure allergies, colds, or the flu, they provide welcome relief for at least some of the discomforts of seasonal allergies and upper respiratory infections. However, it’s essential for consumers to read the ingredient labels, evaluate their symptoms, and choose the most appropriate remedy. It is not necessary to take medication if your symptoms are mild to moderate. Seek care from a physician if your symptoms persist beyond 7-10 days or are accompanied by fevers greater than 101.5 and worsening illness.
Balloon sinuplasty is an endoscopic surgical procedure for the treatment of blocked nasal sinuses. Patients diagnosed with chronic sinusitis but not responding well to medications may be candidates for some type of sinus surgery. Two options are balloon sinuplasty and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).
The nasal bones are commonly injured by trauma. Fortunately, surgery is not needed most of the time, as the nose heals well. Treatment may include the use of nose sprays, facial protection with a mask (for sports), or other medicines. However, it is sometimes necessary to repair a nasal fracture for a deformity or because of nasal blockages. In most cases of simple closed reduction (“resetting of the nasal bones”), the patient may expect improvement in appearance and/or function compared to the condition of the nose immediately after it was fractured. The more severe the injury, the greater the possibility is of partial improvement.
In some cases of extensive nasal trauma, the surgeon may have to re-fracture or perform bone cuts (osteotomies) in the nasal bones to re-establish a normal nasal anatomy and shape. Nasal infection, bleeding, or hematoma (a collection of blood trapped under the skin) are occasional complications that can be resolved with treatment. Loss of sense of smell is uncommon, but if it occurs as a result of trauma, it may be permanent.
The surgeon may have to use a nasal cast made of plaster, plastic, or metal in order to keep the nasal bones from shifting out of position after surgery. Additional instructions regarding surgery will be given to you, depending on the extent of the surgery. Please call 972-402-8404972-402-8404 and leave a message with the nurse if you have any questions.
Allergen immunotherapy (also termed hyposensitization therapy, immunologic desensitization, hyposensibilization, or allergen-specific immunotherapy) is a form of immunotherapy for allergic disorders in which the patient is vaccinated with increasingly larger doses of an allergen (substances to which they are allergic) with the aim of inducing immunologic tolerance. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment strategy which treats the underlying cause of the allergic disorder. It is a highly cost-effective treatment strategy which results in an improved quality of life and a reduction in allergic- and allergen-related asthma, as well as a reduction in days off school/work. Immunotherapy has been shown to produce long-term remission of allergic symptoms, reduce severity of associated asthma as well as reduce the chances of new sensitizations to allergens developing. This is achieved via immunotherapy modulating the immune system response to allergens.
The ear, nose, and throat specialist will prescribe many medications (antibiotics, decongestants, nasal steroid sprays, antihistamines) and procedures (flushing) for treating acute sinusitis. There are occasions when physician and patient find that the infections are recurrent and/or non-responsive to the medication. When this occurs, surgery to enlarge the openings that drain the sinuses is an option.
Septoplasty is an operation performed to correct a deformity of the nasal septum, (the partition between the two sides of the nose.) Also called a “deviated septum repair, the goal is usually to improve breathing, but sometimes it is necessary to improve visualization of the interior of the nose for treatment of polyps, inflammation, tumors, or bleeding. Deformity of the septum is usually a result of trauma, but some people naturally have a twisted septum. Septoplasty is not designed to change the external appearance of the nose or to treat nasal allergies and other causes of nasal drainage.
Available at ENT Partners of Texas’ office. The Sinus Rinse Kit is a therapeutic saline nasal irrigation system. This kit is used for: Nasal Dryness, Sinus Pressure and Nasal Congestion, Nasal Symptoms from Flu and Cold, Post Nasal Drip, Nasal Irritation from Occupational and House Dust, Fumes, Animal Dander, Grass, Pollen and Smoke.
There are different forms of turbinate surgery: Somnoplasty – bipolar radiofrequency ablation – a technique used for coblation tonsillectomy, is also used for the treatment of swollen turbinates; reduction by the use of pure heat can be equally effective as can turbinate sectioning. In the case of sectioning, because the turbinates are essential for respiration, only small amounts of turbinate tissue should be removed. Extensive reduction of the inferior or middle turbinates can cause empty nose syndrome.
Concha bullosa is an abnormal pneumatization of the middle turbinate which may interfere with normal ventilation of sinus ostia and can result in recurrent sinusitis.